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UK Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD)
Office for National Statistics
12 December 2013
The UK Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) publication includes estimates for R&D carried out by the following four sectors of the economy, as defined in the Frascati manual2, business enterprise (BERD), higher education (HERD), Government (GovERD) which includes Research Councils, and Private Non-Profit (PNP). These four assets are listed separately.